Nyarlathotep, known to many by his epithet "The Crawling Chaos," is an Outer God in the Cthulhu Mythos. He is the creation of H. P. Lovecraft and first appeared in his prose poem "Nyarlathotep" (1920). Nyarlathotep appears in numerous subsequent stories by Lovecraft, and is also featured in the works of other authors, as well as in role-playing games based on the Cthulhu Mythos.
Nyarlathotep differs from other Outer Gods in a number of ways. Most of them are exiled to the stars, like Yog-Sothoth and Hastur, or are sleeping and dreaming like Cthulhu; Nyarlathotep, however, is active and frequently walks the Earth in the guise of a human being, usually a tall, slim, joyous man. He has "a thousand" other forms, most reputed to be quite horrific and sanity-blasting.
Most of the Outer Gods have their own cults serving them; Nyarlathotep seems to serve these cults and take care of their affairs in their absence. Most Outer Gods use strange alien languages, while Nyarlathotep uses human languages and can be mistaken for a human being. Finally, most of them are all powerful yet evidently without clear purpose, yet Nyarlathotep seems to be deliberately deceptive and manipulative, and even uses propaganda to achieve his goals. In this regard, he is probably the most human-like among them.
Nyarlathotep enacts the will of the Outer Gods, and is their messenger, heart and soul; he is also the servant of Azathoth, whose fitful, spastic wishes he immediately fulfills. Unlike the other Outer Gods, causing madness is more important and enjoyable than death and destruction to Nyarlathotep. It is suggested by some that he will destroy the human race and possibly the earth as well. 
Nyarlathotep in LovecraftEdit
Nyarlathotep's first appearance is in the eponymous short story by Lovecraft (1920), in which he is described as a "tall, swarthy man" who resembles an Egyptian Pharaoh. In this story he wanders the earth, seemingly gathering legions of followers through his demonstrations of strange and seemingly magical instruments, the narrator of the story among them. These followers lose awareness of the world around them, and through the narrator's increasingly unreliable accounts the reader gets a sense of the world's utter collapse. The story ends with the narrator as part of an army of servants for Nyarlathotep.
Nyarlathotep (usually referred to in conjunction with the subnomen, "The Crawling Chaos") subsequently appears as a major character in The Dream Quest of Unknown Kadath (1926/27), in which he again manifests in the form of an Egyptian Pharaoh when he confronts protagonist Randolph Carter. He is here depicted as an avatar of the Other Gods, executing their will on Earth and in Dreamland.
The twenty-first sonnet of Lovecraft's poem-cycle Fungi from Yuggoth (1929/30) – not to be confused with the entities identified as the fungi from Yuggoth, or Mi-Go in "The Whisperer in Darkness" – is dedicated to Nyarlathotep, and is substantially a poetic retelling of the short story "Nyarlathotep."
In "The Dreams in the Witch House" (1933), Nyarlathotep appears to Walter Gilman and witch Keziah Mason (who has made a pact with the entity) in the form of "the 'Black Man' of the witch-cult," a black-skinned avatar of the Devil associated with New England witchcraft lore.
Though Nyarlathotep appears as a character in only four stories and one sonnet (still more than any other Great Old Ones or Outer Gods), his name is mentioned frequently in numerous others. For example, in "The Whisperer in Darkness" Nyarlathotep's name is spoken frequently by the fungi from Yuggoth in a reverential or ritual sense, indicating that they worship or honor the entity.
Despite similarities in theme and name, Nyarlathotep does not feature at all in Lovecraft's story "The Crawling Chaos," (1920/21) an apocalyptic narrative written in collaboration with Elizabeth Berkeley.
In a 1921 letter to Reinhardt Kleiner, Lovecraft related the dream he had had — described as "the most realistic and horrible [nightmare] I have experienced since the age of ten" — that served as the basis for his prose poem "Nyarlathotep". In the dream, he received a letter from his friend Samuel Loveman that read:
- Don't fail to see Nyarlathotep if he comes to Providence. He is horrible — horrible beyond anything you can imagine — but wonderful. He haunts one for hours afterward. I am still shuddering at what he showed.
- I had never heard the name NYARLATHOTEP before, but seemed to understand the allusion. Nyarlathotep was a kind of itinerant showman or lecturer who held forth in public halls and aroused widespread fear and discussion with his exhibitions. These exhibitions consisted of two parts – first, a horrible – possibly prophetic – cinema reel; and later some extraordinary experiments with scientific and electrical apparatus. As I received the letter, I seemed to recall that Nyarlathotep was already in Providence.... I seemed to remember that persons had whispered to me in awe of his horrors, and warned me not to go near him. But Loveman's dream letter decided me.... As I left the house I saw throngs of men plodding through the night, all whispering affrightedly and bound in one direction. I fell in with them, afraid yet eager to see and hear the great, the obscure, the unutterable Nyarlathotep.
Will Murray suggests that this dream image of Nyarlathotep may have been inspired by the inventor Nikola Tesla, whose well-attended lectures did involve extraordinary experiments with electrical apparatus, and whom some saw as a sinister figure.
Robert M. Price proposes that the name Nyarlathotep may have been subconsciously suggested to Lovecraft by two names from Lord Dunsany, an author he much admired: Alhireth-Hotep, a false prophet from Dunsany's The Gods of Pegana, and Mynarthitep, a god described as "angry" in his "The Sorrow of Search".
And it was then that Nyarlathotep came out of Egypt. Who he was, none could tell, but he was of the old native blood and looked like a Pharaoh. The fellahin knelt when they saw him, yet could not say why. He said he had risen up out of the blackness of twenty-seven centuries, and that he had heard messages from places not on this planet. Into the lands of civilisation came Nyarlathotep, swarthy, slender, and sinister, always buying strange instruments of glass and metal and combining them into instruments yet stranger. He spoke much of the sciences – of electricity and psychology –and gave exhibitions of power which sent his spectators away speechless, yet which swelled his fame to exceeding magnitude. Men advised one another to see Nyarlathotep, and shuddered. And where Nyarlathotep went, rest vanished; for the small hours were rent with the screams of a nightmare.
—H. P. Lovecraft, Nyarlathotep
And through this revolting graveyard of the universe the muffled, maddening beating of drums, and thin, monotonous whine of blasphemous flutes from inconceivable, unlighted chambers beyond Time; the detestable pounding and piping whereunto dance slowly, awkwardly, and absurdly the gigantic, tenebrous ultimate gods — the blind, voiceless, mindless gargoyles whose soul is Nyarlathotep.
—H. P. Lovecraft, Nyarlathotep
It was the eldritch scurrying of those fiend-born rats, always questing for new horrors, and determined to lead me on even unto those grinning caverns of earth's centre where Nyarlathotep, the mad faceless god, howls blindly to the piping of two amorphous idiot flute-players.
—H. P. Lovecraft, The Rats in the Walls
What his fate would be, he did not know; but he felt that he was held for the coming of that frightful soul and messenger of infinity's Other Gods, the crawling chaos Nyarlathotep.—H. P. Lovecraft, The Dream-Quest of Unknown Kadath'There was the immemorial figure of the deputy or messenger of hidden and terrible powers – the "Black Man" of the witch cult, and the "Nyarlathotep" of the Necronomicon.
—H. P. Lovecraft, The Dreams in the Witch House
The Nyarlathotep CycleEdit
In 1996, Chaosium published The Nyarlathotep Cycle, a Cthulhu Mythos anthology focusing on works referring to or inspired by the entity Nyarlathotep. Edited by Lovecraft scholar Robert M. Price, the book includes an introduction by Price tracing the roots and development of the God of a Thousand Forms. The contents include:
- "Alhireth-Hotep the Prophet" by Lord Dunsany
- "The Sorrow of Search" by Lord Dunsany
- "Nyarlathotep" by H. P. Lovecraft
- "The Second Coming" (poem) by William Butler Yeats
- "Silence Falls on Mecca’s Walls" (poem) by Robert E. Howard
- "Nyarlathotep" (poem) by H. P. Lovecraft
- "The Dreams in the Witch House" by H. P. Lovecraft
- "The Haunter of the Dark" by H. P. Lovecraft
- "The Dweller in Darkness" by August Derleth
- "The Titan in the Crypt" by J. G. Warner
- "Fane of the Black Pharaoh" by Robert Bloch
- "Curse of the Black Pharaoh" by Lin Carter
- "The Curse of Nephren-Ka" by John Cockroft
- "The Temple of Nephren-Ka" by Philip J. Rahman & Glenn A. Rahman
- "The Papyrus of Nephren-Ka" by Robert C. Culp
- "The Snout in the Alcove" by Gary Myers
- "The Contemplative Sphinx" (poem) by Richard Tierney
- "Ech-Pi-El’s Ægypt" (poems) by Ann K. Schwader
As one of H.P. Lovecraft's most famous creations, Nyarlathotep has appeared in and been referenced by numerous other works in popular culture.
Nyarlathotep sometimes appears or is referred to in literature outside the Cthulhu Mythos genre of horror:
- In Stephen King's The Stand and his Dark Tower series of books, the character Randall Flagg was known (among many other names) as Nyarlathotep. His short story "Crouch End" features the name spelled "Nyarlahotep". In The Dark Tower VII: The Dark Tower, a fictional version of King himself mentions Nyarlathotep.
- The children's horror writer Brad Strickland used Nyarlathotep as the main antagonist in his book The Wrath of the Grinning Ghost.
- Nyarlathotep is a student in Harry Turtledove's short story "The Genetics Lecture."
- The Book of the SubGenius briefly mentions an entity called "Nyardim Thothep"
- Pulp novelist Barry Reese uses Nyarlathotep in several of his Rook Universe stories. Nyarlathotep appears in "Kingdom of Blood" and "The Gasping Death". Nyarlathotep also appears under the guise Mr. Blackman in the short story "The Great Work" which was printed in both Thrilling Adventures and the fifth edition of Startling Stories
- In 'A Night in the Lonesome October by Roger Zelazny, Nyarlathotep and other gods are referred to and are part of the main plot.
- In the novel The Arcanum, a case involving Nyarlathotep is said to have been solved by Lovecraft himself.
- Nyarlathotep appears in the novel Johannes Cabal: The Fear Institute, by Jonathan L. Howard, as a main antagonist, in the guise of Fear Institute member Gardner Bose.
- A series of light novels in Japan started in 2009 called Haiyore! Nyaruko-san about Nyarlathotep, amassing 9 volumes by 2012.
- Nyarlathotep is a French comic book by Rotomago and J. Noirel, literal adaptation of the homonymous Lovecrafts' short story.
- Magic spells in the comic book Conan the Barbarian feature invocations to "Nyarla Thotep".
- In Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, Loki summons Nyarlathotep, "tearer of souls, ripper of flesh".
- Nyarlathotep (also called Priest of the Ether, Chaos Made Flesh, etc.) is a character in the webcomic Friendly Hostility.
- Ethan Kostabi in the Caballistics, Inc. series has been hinted to be Nyarlathotep.
- In Unspeakable Vault (of Doom), Nyarlathotep regularly appears as what looks like a living tentacle with arms and legs.
- Is briefly featured, along with other Great Old Ones, in the dream world the lead characters visit in Roger Zelazny's A Night in the Lonesome October.
- In Serenity Rose, Skarsdayle is the former lead singer of a band named Nyarlathotep.
- Nyarlathotep appears at the end of The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen: Black Dossier as an emissary sent from Yuggoth to negotiate a truce with Prospero of the Blazing World.
- Nyarlathotep is the main antagonist in the Fall of Cthulhu series by Boom! Studios
- Nyarlathotep is the true form of Space Hojo, one of the main characters in the webcomic Twisted Kaiju Theater.
In 2011, two series of manga written by Manta Aisora debuted:
- May 2011 illustrated by Kei Okazaki began running in Miracle Jump
- October 2011 illustrated by Sōichirō Hoshino, Haiyore! Super Nyaruko-chan Time began running in Flex Comic Blood.
The light novel series was adapted into 4 anime series:
- 2009: nine episodes of 3-minute OVAs called Haiyoru! Nyaruani
- 2010: twelve episodes of 5-minute TV shorts called Haiyoru! Nyaruani: Remember My Mr. Lovecraft
- 2012: twelve episodes of 25-minute full TV episodes called Haiyore! Nyaruko-san
- 2013: twelve episodes of 24-minute full TV episodes called Haiyore! Nyaruko-san W
- Metallica's 1986 song "The Thing That Should Not Be" contains the lyric "crawling chaos, underground / cult has summoned, twisted sound"
- German heavy metal band Rage has a song titled "The Crawling Chaos," a song seemingly about the destruction of the earth by Nyarlathotep, on their 1995 album Black in Mind.
- Italian heavy metal band Bejelit has a song titled "Haunter in the Dark," based on the story of the same name, from their Bones and Evil EP.
- The band Nox Arcana has a song titled "Nyarlathotep".
- The Belgian metalcore band Congress has a song intro titled "Nyarlathotep" on their Angry With The Sun album.
- The band Darkest of the Hillside Thickets has a song titled "Nyarlathotep" on their album The Shadow Out of Tim. The songs lyrics are written entirely in Middle Egyptian.
- The band Dream Theater has a song titled "The Dark Eternal Night" which is adapted from Lovecraft's writing.
- The band Burning Star Core has a song entitled "Nyarlathotep" on their album The Very Heart of the World.
- Experimental electronic project Flint Glass has an album titled "Nyarlathotep", all music on this album was inspired by the Cthulhu Mythos.
- The Rhode Island based rock band Hemlok has an instrumental entitled "Nyarlathotep" on their debut album Shades of Passing (2008).
- Nyarlathotep appears in the Persona series of PlayStation games as a god symbolic of the destructive potential of Carl Jung's collective unconscious, although, thus far, he only plays a significant role in the first title, and both parts of the second title.
- As the Thing Outside Time and Space in the trading card game Hecatomb.
- Also as Outer God Nyarla in the trading card game Yu-Gi-Oh.
- Nyarlathotep is the main antagonist of the Demonbane series which spans games, comics, novels, and a TV series, in which it is trying to free its father Azathoth from the Shining Trapezohedron. It has taken on four named forms so far: Nya, an owner of a mysterious bookstore filled with dangerous grimoires, Nyarla, a maid to Augusta Derleth, Father Ny, the leader of the Church of Starry Wisdom, and the Tick-Tock Man, technology incarnate. It has also taken on the forms of an unnamed black man "from Egypt," and a talking black rat, among others. Its "true" form is depicted as a great shadow filled with fangs and claws and tentacles with three flaming eyes.
- In the Derelict campaign mod of the game FreeSpace 2, the Nyarlathotep is the designation of a Shivan Lucifer class destroyer which was found floating in subspace for centuries.
- His name and title (crawling chaos) is mentioned in Ice Station Santa, the first episode of season 2 of the Sam and Max adventure game series by Telltale Games. When attempting to exorcize a demon, Nyarlathotep's name is one of the incorrect guesses of the demon's true name.
- A 13-minute short film version of Nyarlathotep was released in 2001, directed by Christian Matzke. It was re-released on DVD in 2004 as part of the H. P. Lovecraft Collection Volume 1: Cool Air.
- Nyarlathotep. Last accessed on 21 February 2007.
- Masks of Nyarlathotep. Last accessed on 25 January 2006.
- Harms, Daniel. "Nyarlathotep" in The Encyclopedia Cthulhiana (2nd ed.), pp. 218–222. Oakland, CA: Chaosium, 1998. ISBN 1-56882-119-0.
Role-playing game materialEdit
- Aniolowski, Scott D. (1990). "The Sundial of Amen-Tet". Lurking Fears. Lockport, NY: Triad Entertainments.
- Aniolowski, Scott D. (1994). Ye Booke of Monstres. Oakland, CA: Chaosium. ISBN 1-56882-019-4.
- Conyers, David (2007). Secrets of Kenya. Oakland, CA: Chaosium. ISBN 1-568821-88-3.
- Detwiller, Dennis; Adam Scott Glancy and John Tynes (1997). Delta Green: A Call of Cthulhu Sourcebook of Modern Horror and Conspiracy. Tynes Cowan Corp. ISBN 1-887797-08-4.
- Diaper, John; et al (1983). The Arkham Evil. Theatre of the Mind.
- DiTillio, Larry; Lynn Willis (1987). "City beneath the Sands". Terror Australis. Oakland, CA: Chaosium. ISBN 0-933635-40-0.
- DiTillio, Larry; Lynn Willis (1996). Masks of Nyarlathotep. Oakland, CA: Chaosium. ISBN 1-56882-069-0.
- Gillian, Geoff (1991). "Regiment of Dread". Tales of the Miskatonic Valley. Oakland, CA: Chaosium. ISBN 0-933635-83-4.
- Gillian, Geoff; et al (1991). Horror on the Orient Express.
- Hallet, David; L.N. Isinwyll (1991). "Eyes for the Blind". Dark Designs.
- Hamblin, William (1983). "Thoth's Dagger". Different Worlds #27.
- Herber, Keith (1990). "Dead of Night". Arkham Unveiled.
- Herber, Keith (1984). The Fungi from Yuggoth.
- Herber, Keith (1991). Return to Dunwich.
- Johnson, Sam (1997). A Resection of Time. Oakland, CA: Chaosium. ISBN 1-56882-095-X.
- Lyons, Doug; L.N. Isinwyll (1989). "One in Darkness". The Great Old Ones. Oakland, CA: Chaosium.
- Petersen, Sandy (1982). "The Rise of R'lyeh". Shadows of Yog-Sothoth.
- Petersen, Sandy; John B. Monroe (1990). "The Ten Commandments of Cthulhu Hunting". The Cthulhu Casebook.
- Ross, Kevin (1997). Escape from Innsmouth (2nd ed.). Oakland, CA: Chaosium. ISBN 1-56882-115-8.
- Williams, Chris; Sandy Petersen (1997). The Complete Dreamlands (4th ed.). Oakland, CA: Chaosium. ISBN 1-56882-086-0.
- D, Kay (2007). Nyarlathotep.
- ↑ Harms, "Nyarlathotep", The Encyclopedia Cthulhiana, pp. 218–9.
- ↑ H. P. Lovecraft, letter to Reinhardt Kleiner, December 21, 1921; cited in Lin Carter, Lovecraft: A Look Behind the Cthulhu Mythos, pp. 18-19.
- ↑ Will Murray, "Behind the Mask of Nyarlathotep", Lovecraft Studies No. 25 (Fall 1991); cited in Robert M. Price, The Nyarlathotep Cycle, p. 9.
- ↑ Price, p. vii, 1-5.
- ↑ Nyarlathotep (2001)
- ↑ H. P. LOVECRAFT'S NYARLATHOTEP: The Official Website
- ↑ Amazon.com: The H.P. Lovecraft Collection Volume 1: Cool Air: Movies & TV
- "Nyarlathotep", the original prose poem by H. P. Lovecraft